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The Five Percent Roots

Black History Reveiled
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This site is ALWAYS under construction !!!

Enter here for More! Market Place 2006

Welcome to our web site!
(and all those made in our likeness)

In the name of all that is controlling the Universe We bring to you this site as a  step in a positive direction for many years to come...
We have come to understand that Religion is the very thing holding us back from the truths as human beings (self acheivement).  It keeps a person in a box, and doe's not allow free thinking.. They give us half truths and we run with it, applying it to our lives as if it was our own...  Yes, we have the rights as people to go and worship under our own fig tree, so this site is not for the worshipping type, its for the Seekers of Universal Understanding.
P.R.T. ENTERPRISES is a group of businesses geared for the Universal growth of the Gods and Earths... We are an example of God creating for self and family...
We are talking about Food, Shelter, and Clothing.. and we know that everyone needs those jewels to live in this world as we know it.
Waiting on a spook from the heavens above to grant you such important elements is as foolish as sitting in a feild waiting on such spook to send food down from the heavens to substain you. (You will starve to death!).
Once we have done for self, we can do for others, Once we come together and share our wealth, then we can begin to develope a community and all will be in good hands...
Learn to do for self is the key to obtaining the universe, and the chance to walk among the hall of Knowledge, Wisdom, and Understanding..
We are Universal members of the Gods and Earths... Our mission is to elevate the seekers, looking to obtain the tools to raise up from the ash and reclaim a understanding of self.. regardless of race, color or religious background..
Come, walk with us as we travel the halls of all that is Real and Unreal... and decipher the meanings, to bring out the truths...


The Black Man is the Original Man
The Black Man is the origin of civilization

Supreme Mathematics is the key to understanding the relationship of man to the Universe

Education must be fashioned to enable black self-efficiency

Each one should teach one

The Black Man is God and Allah is his proper name

The child is the key to the future and should be nurtured, loved, respected, protected and be given a proper education

The vital building block of the Black Nation is a unified black family

These are the basic tenets of an organization call the Five Percent Nation of Gods and Earths.

The Nation was founded by leader Clarence 13X, an ex-member of the Nation of Islam's Mosque No. 7 in Harlem, NY, in the early 1960's. Basically, the members were taught a version of the Black Muslim religion with emphasis on a version of Supreme Math and Alphabetics. In the beginning, the members took Muslim/Arabic names and Clarence became known as Father Allah. Then Father Allah taught the members that Islam was not a religion, but a way of life. They abandoned the Islamic names and were named in accordance with numeric and alphabetically symbolic names. The men were told that they were gods, just like Father Allah, and the women were known as earths. Gods were named Allah - arm, leg, leg, arm and head - the complete. The women were named Earth - eternally allah rules through her - the compliment to the god.

Still based in Harlem, the Nation is now international and thriving. Black awareness and education keep the Nation alive and strong.

The Five Percent emblem is comprised of a circle of 360 degrees containg a white background which depicts the lies and deception of the whites and purity of knowledge. The number Seven is the seventh letter G for God, the Creator. The five pointed star symbolize the child coming from the womb of the fertile crescent moon of the woman. While the sun is the truth and the light with the pointys symbolizing the Universe.

While early renegade fivepercenters would state that it meant that they were the five percent of the Muslims who drank and smoked, the true meaning is for the righteous 5 percent to teacher and learners who are between the 85 percent of the ignorant and the 10 percent who are the politicians and deceivers.

the man history has yet to remember. Allah was born Clarence Smith on Friday, February 22, 1928

Universally "POOR RIGHTEOUS TEACHERS", are our claim to fame, we share the wealth.... and enjoy learning new and powerful things... So, come and share the Wealth with the Universal Family of  P.R.T.'s  via the internet...




Teachings From the Holy Qur'an

Chaper 3, Verse 143
And Muhammad is but a Messenger -- Messengers have already passed away

before him. If then he dies or is killed, will you turn back upon your heels?

And he who turns back upon his heels will do no harm at all to Allah.

And Allah will reward the grateful.

Footnotes 496 & 497

"The Prophet received severe wounds in the battle of Uhud; there was even a

rumour that he was killed. It is to this that the verse refers. Even if the

Prophet were killed, Islam was so far superior to all forms of faith that the

Muslims could not give up Islam. Truth was truth, though its advocate might be

killed in a battle; nor could falsehood and superstition be accepted, though

their advocates might prevail for a time.

While this verse lays stress on the essential truth of Islam, it served

another important purpose at the death of the Prophet. SOME OF THE COMPANIONS

THOUGHT THAT THE PROPHET WAS NOT DEAD. Abu Bakr went in, and seeing that life

had departed, ascended the pulpit and read this verse, which had a magical

effect upon his hearers, all of them being convinced that the Prophet had passed

away, as all prophets had

passed away before him. The prophets were but mortals, and their span of mortal

life must no doubt terminate like that of other mortals. This verse affords a

conclusive proof that Jesus Christ was also dead; otherwise Abu Bakr's argument

could not have silenced the doubters of the Prophet's death.


The Greatest Story Never

Today there are thousands of young black men and women who are members of The Nation of Gods and Earths. There are even thousands more who are not members but whose lives have been affected in some positive way from learning the knowledge of themselves at an early age. Why isn't the man who is responsible for awakening so many black youth known to the masses of our people? Why has this man never been honored? Perhaps it's because his full greatness won't be realized until the world beholds the greatness of the masses of black youth whose lives he touched. Let's take the time now to look back at the life of Allah: the man history has yet to remember. Allah was born Clarence Smith on Friday, February 22, 1928 in Danville, Virginia. He was the fifth son of Louis and Mary Smith. His sister Bernice and younger brother Harry A (A Allah) were born after him to complete the family of seven; six boys and one girl. As a baby his mother nicknamed him 'Put' and this is what he was called throughout his early childhood years. Allah's early childhood experience was characterized by the Jim Crow laws of segregation in the south which meant that blacks were separated from whites in housing, schools, theaters, etc.... Allah and his brothers and sisters never minded not being with "whitey" as they referred to them as. They enjoyed life amongst their own people and never were interested in going where they weren't welcomed. The Smith family lived at 834 Valley Street. It was a six block walk into the heart of town where the movie theaters were located at. The blacks had a choice of going to the "colored" theater or sitting in the balcony of the whites theater. Allah and his siblings carried memories of looking down at "whitey" from he balcony of the theater and remarking how silly and trivial they were. Summers were spent by the Smith children in St. Petersburg, Florida with relatives. There, they would swim in a river behind a slaughter house where cows were prepared for market. There was a landing in the middle of the river at the base of a train trestle where they would swim to in order to catch candy thrown by "whitey" from the windows of passing by trains. Allah was a very strong swimmer. His brothers would joke that Johnny Weissmuller (Tarzan) didn't have anything on him. One day they were out swimming. Allah and one of his friends had reached the landing at the trestle when they spotted A Allah going down in the water. Allah dove back into the river, reached his brother quickly and pulled him to safety. He had saved his brother's life. His father, Louis, was a tall man, he wasn't very built, kind of lanky but he was a helluva man, strong in sense of convictions. An event that must have heavily influenced Allah's attitude towards life in general and whites in particular occurred in at their house in Danville while he was still a young boy. On this occasion, Allah witnessed his father fight a burly whiteman in front of their house. His father ended up knocking this man over the banister of the house an they had to beat the man's son and daughter who tried to come to their father's aid. All this had taken place because the whiteman had cursed in front of Allah's mother! Perhaps more so than anything else, these were the kind of experiences that developed and made Allah, the man. He had instilled in him a "down home" sense of values, convictions, street wisdom, and awareness. In the 1940's, Allah's mother, Mary moved to New York for employment. She rented an apartment in Harlem. In 1946, Allah came north to join his mother and older brothers. Once in New York, his nickname, 'Put' that his mother had coined for him when he was a boy was mistaken for 'Puddin' and this is what he became known as. Allah performed a number of odd jobs to keep money in his pockets. Among them was a fruit stand that he opened up in a little hole-in- the-wall in Harlem. It was also in Harlem in the 1940's that he developed a love for gambling which remained with him throughout his life. He played a lot of pool in Harlem these days and got a reputation as a pool shark. In 1946 he met Willeen Jowers and grew to love her very much. He wanted to marry her but because she was only seventeen years old at the time and didn't have her mother's permission, she couldn't marry him. Allah Willeen had two sons together. A-Allah and B-Allah, born in 1949 and 1951 respectively. However in order to prove to Willeen's mother that he wasn't dependent on her to marry he married another woman whom he loved very much by the name of Dora. He and Dora also had two children, Clarence and Christine. In 1950, Allah joined the Army and went to fight in the Korean War. This experience required a new set of principles of him other than anything he had thus far encountered. In war, he learned not to befriend anyone because of the uncertainty of who was the next to be killed. However even being half a world away and at war didn't deter him from the loves of his life. He would send home money regularly to his families. Money which he had won.... gambling. In Korea, Allah just missed being killed on many occasions. One such incident occurred while he was walking through a field flanked by men in his unit. Gunfire broke out and the men on the sides of him were picked off and killed. It was as though he had a calling that he had to fulfill back in the states. He endured the time in Korea, completed his bid, and returned to the United States with a high and prestigious award for his outstanding service record. While he was away, his wife Dora, had become a Muslim and entered the Nation of Islam under the leadership of the Honorable Elijah Muhammad. When he returned he too accepted the teachings of Islam and he joined her at Temple No. 7 under Minister Malcolm X. It was in the Temple that he met Justice, then named Akbar, who would become his closest associate for many years to come. His years at Temple No. 7 began inauspiciously enough, his initial duty was elevator operator for the temple. However, he was to rise through the ranks quickly. Soon he was promoted to the position of lieutenant with the responsibility of training the Fruit of Islam (FOI) in karate which he had learned while he was in Korea. The FOI is the military training of men in the Nation of Islam. He studied his lessons hard and soon became very proficient at them. The lessons developed in him a fiery wisdom. And he had a speaking style that was unique to him, a slow methodical cadence stressing syllables that normally aren't. It was hypnotic. He was again promoted, this time to the position of student minister. Elijah Muhammad had received word of this fiery young student minister and traveled to New York to meet him, and bestow him with the name Abdullah. It was at this point that turmoil began to develop with him in the temple. Allah had been a man who always thought for himself, he was no follower. At this point in time, the teachings of the Nation of Islam was that W.D. Fard, the man who came to North America and taught Elijah Muhammad, was the Supreme Being, Allah. At the same time, however, the lessons that the Muslims studied, which were written by Elijah Muhammad and W.D. Fard, clearly stated throughout that "the original man is Allah, The Supreme Being, the Blackman." The lessons also state that "there is no mystery god" and that we should "lose no time searching for that which does not exist." One day in 1963, Allah was addressing the student ministers class. He was speaking about one of the lessons which dealt with what makes rain, hail, snow and earthquakes? He was manifesting his self style, literal interpretation that "all the above is cause by... man." The head of the FOI, Captain Joseph, walked into the room and heard what Allah was teaching. He stopped the meeting, dismissed the men, and spoke with Allah. He told Allah that he couldn't teach what he was teaching there. It is also at this point where there is disagreement as to exactly what happened. Muslims who were in the temple with Allah say that he had marital problems or that it was his love of gambling that caused his leaving the temple. Those outside the temple point out that this couldn't be the case because these were acts that call for a hearing and at most a suspension for a period of time from the temple, not lifetime expulsion. They assert that it was something much more deeply rooted than either of these reasons. At any rate and for whatever reasons, the differences that had developed between Allah and the Muslims were irreconcilable. It was a time of turmoil in general for the Nation of Islam. Minister Malcolm X himself was given a never ending suspension from the temple. And so Allah left the temple, he took with him Justice and other brothers who understood the reality of his teachings. He brought with him his lessons that had so much to do with him developing into a fiery orator. He left the temple and was back on the streets of Harlem. This time to teach Islam to the masses of black youth who had not been reached by Muslims.

Birth of a Nation

1963, Allah left temple number 7. He had come into a realization that would have far reaching implications. A realization that would shake New York City and be felt around the world forever. He knew from his lessons while in the temple that the Original Man (Blackman) was the Supreme Being, God. Supreme means the most high, being means to exist. God, therefore is the name given to the highest form of existence: the Blackman. This supreme form of life is the vehicle through which Allah's will is made manifest. There is no substance in the Universe or world that the Original Blackman's body does not consist of. Even the forces we see around us, above us and below us have their beginning with us. He also knew from his lessons that 85% of the people were mentally blind, deaf and dumb, while 10% of the people were devils who kept the 85% ignorant and that 5% were the righteous people who would lead the people from certain destruction. What he now realized was that this was applied to him individually. That he, as an individual, was God and therefore could not sit by idle and depend on a "mystery God" to do what he himself was blessed with the innate abilities to do. He changed his name from Clarence 13X to Allah and went to the streets of Harlem to do God's job. God's job as he saw it would be to reach his blind, deaf and dumb people and from them raise the 5% Nation.

Teach the Babies

Allah began teaching Islam to the people in the community. The message he carried to them was that they had to clean themselves up in order to regain their long lost stature of prominence in this world. That they should abstain from smoking cigarettes, drink alcohol, and eating pork. However, it was not long before he recognized their reluctance to change their way of life and thinking. Allah decided to focus his attention on the youth. He developed the science of Supreme Mathematics as the basis of his teachings and the key to unlock the minds of black youth. Supreme Mathematics are the ten principles which correspond to the nine basic units and the zero in our number system. Using the Supreme Mathematics and the Supreme Alphabets, which are principles that correspond to the twenty six letters that Allah and Justice created together, he taught the young how to break down and form profound relationships between significant experiences within life. Allah took his message to poor, delinquent and hard core street youth. Many of them were drug addicts, drop outs, and incorrigible black youth that society had long since failed and given up on. Using the Supreme Mathematics and Alphabets, Allah taught them the meaning of their names, age (degree), why life was so hard and cold for the Blackman and other significant facts of life.

The First Born

His first student he named Karriem, later to become Black Messiah. Allah chose him to be the first black youth with this knowledge because of his ability to attract the youth in the community and because he was a black seed (meaning a dark complexion). Fundamentally to Allah's teachings was that the black seed was the first seed and most dominant. Since the number 'one' represents the principle of knowledge in the Supreme Mathematics, the black seed being the first seed, was referred to as the "knowledge seed". Therefore Allah understood that Messiah's nature was to be a source of knowledge. Messiah brought other black youth to be taught by Allah. Allah began by teaching nine black youth. The number nine represents the principle of 'born' in the Supreme Mathematics. Nine is the highest number in the numerical system, thus it means to be complete, just as it take nine months for a baby to be birthed into this world. Thus, these nine black youth came to be known as the "First Born". They were Karriem or Black Messiah, Niheem or Bisme Allah, Uhuru, Kihiem, Al-Jabbar or Prince Allah, Al Jamel, Bilal or Jihad or ABG7, Akbar, and Al Salam They called Allah, "The Father" because many of them were the products of broken homes and this was the only father they knew. Thus the Father taught his First Nine Born.

Allah's Teachings

The Father taught them that they were of the Most High even though they would be considered by some to be the most low in the wilderness of North America. That they should not be anti-white nor pro-black, but they should be anti-devilishment and pro-righteousness. And that they should fear nothing in this world, that even the devil did not fear death. His only fear was of Allah, because he knew not when or how he would come. That if they were one with Allah, there should be no reason to fear anything in this world. He told them that they did not need guns unless they had the legal paper for them because their tongue was their sword and that they could take more heads with the word than any army with machine guns could ever do. And that he who must live by the gun shall surely die by the gun! He didn't teach them to fight fire with a tulip, but he taught them not to try to put out a fire with gasoline. The First Born were each required to teach 10 children or people younger than themselves and they shall be their fruit. Like farmers, they would be held responsible for the development of their crops and that they should do all within their power to keep the snakes out of their gardens. They should watch and see what kind of things tried to infect or poison their fruits and then weed them out. This would ensure them of a righteous harvest. He taught them that some of them or their fruit may have to die to show the rest that everything is real, and that they should hold fast and pray to Allah that is within, and that each of them would be rewarded according to his individual works. He said that future of all the human families of the planet and mankind in general depends on the success of Allah's Nation of the Five Percent.

Five Percenters

Allah's First Born became very powerful and dynamic young men and brought hundreds of black youth into the knowledge of self. They became known as Allah's Five Percent or the Five Percenters. It was in December of 1964 that the first assassination attempt was made on the life of Allah by a Negro named Carlos, who shot him with a high-powered rifle in a basement on 127th Street. The wound was serious enough for Allah to have to be hospitalized but it was not fatal.

Allah Arrested
On May 31, 1965 Allah was speaking at a rally in front of the Hotel Theresa, located at 2098 7th Avenue, when two police officers attempted to break up the rally. As a result a disturbance was brought about. Allah along with several other men were arrested for unlawful assembly and disorderly conduct. At the arraignment in criminal court before Judge Francis X O'Brien, he told the judge that he was wrong for accusing the righteous people and that the city would blow up. When offered a lawyer, he told the judge that he was Allah and that he would represent himself. The judge then ordered that he be taken and held in custody on a $9,500 bond. That September the judge in Supreme Court part thirty ordered him to be placed in the custody of the Psychiatric Unit at Bellevue Hospital for psychiatric treatment. This was the result of him proclaiming himself to be God (Allah). While at Bellevue he continued to teach the youth and authorities transferred him to Mattawan as a means of separating him from his growing nation. Notwithstanding, the nation continued to grow. Allah's Five Percent traveled to see him in Mattawan Hospital in Beacon, N.Y. and the nation spread to Beacon and neighboring Newburg as Five Percenters from New York City frequented these communities.

Allah's Return

Upon returning to New York City in 1967 the Five Percent held their first Universal Parliament in Mount Morris Park to welcome Allah home. Thousands of Five Percenters turned out to welcome Allah's return. Allah spoke to them and there was a thunderous response that reciprocated his greeting of Peace! Allah thanked them for being strong and continuing to grow in his physical absence. He knew they had been building because of all the young he saw. "You are all pace setters of the world, you are Guardian Angels. Keep teaching and you will take over the world." At one point in the parliament there was a disturbance caused by some Muslim followers of the Honorable Elijah Muhammad who were members of Temple No. 7 when Allah was there. They had come to question him as to why he was teaching the youth of the nation that he was Allah. Allah responded that "the Muslims of the Nation of Islam have never seen W.D. Fard and they worship him as Allah. But they say that they don't worship a mystery god. So you are worshipping in blind faith. Elijah said we had to stand up on our own two feet. You can bring Elijah, and any of his ministers to Rockland Palace and he will tell you that I am Allah. You or any Muslims can't judge me or my sons and your lessons say that anything made weak and wicked from the Original Man is devil, and you are running around worshipping a Half Original Man and not the Blackman." The Muslims departed as the Five Percenters celebrated a moral victory with thunderous cries of "All praises are due to Allah!" The Mayor's Man in Harlem It was also in 1967 that John V. Lindsay term in office saw the eruption of Crown Heights, Brooklyn in racial turmoil between the Black and Jews. In his efforts to influence and settle the situation in Crown Heights, Mayor Lindsay realized that the city administration was not in touch with the true leaders of the people in the communities. This prompted Mayor Lindsay to create a Task Force that could develop ties with the community leaders. High on the Mayor's list of priorities was Allah. A meeting took place on May 11th between Allah and Barry Gotherer, one of Lindsay's aides. At this meeting Allah requested the city to provide buses to the Five Percenters for a picnic and a building for a school for him to teach them. On the last Sunday of May, Barry Gotherer attended the Five Percenters Parliament. He told them that the Mayor was interested in working with them, that the city would provide buses for them to go to the beach in Long Island, and that they had plans to secure a building for them at Seventh and 126th Street. The following Sunday, the Five Percenters filled six buses and went to a Long Island State Park. Allah later told Barry that he wasn't as much interested in the buses as he was in his word. That on the street was all that mattered. That your word is your bond. Early that summer Allah's street academy opened at 2122 7th Avenue where it remains to this very day. One of the Five Percenters named Universal Shaamguadd presented Allah with an emblem that he designed and it was ordained as the Universal Flag of the Five Percenters. The emblem was painted on the window of the street academy and put on pins that they wore on their lapels.

City on the Eve of Destruction

On April 4, 1968, Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. This sent shock waves throughout black communities across the country. The immediate reaction of the masses of black people was to riot and loot the stores within their communities. In Harlem that night large crowds of people gathered on the streets. The Five Percenters were also out in force. Recognizing the tendency of the 85% to react violently without any consideration of who, where, what or how to execute their desire for justice, the Five Percent moved throughout the crowds of Harlem reinforcing peace. This helped avert a riot which would have left Harlem in a shamble and the black community holding the bag. Allah received public and media praises for his participation in maintaining peace and order. He also received a commendation from Mayor Lindsay for the outstanding job he was doing in providing motivation for educational and vocational growth in and with youth. On the morning of June 12, 1969, Allah awoke at the home of his mother. He told her that it was the best rest that he had ever had. She asked the Father if he could get out of where he had to go. The Father replied "when they are ready they will kill you." He hugged and kissed his mother good-bye and departed. His mother had the feeling when he had left that day, that he would never come back.

Allah Lives

In the two previous years from June of 1969, Allah had risen to become a very powerful figure within New York City. He had achieved a kind of international celebrity status; Canadian television did a story on him; a sociologist from Sweden interviewed him and he had plans to meet with Chinese representatives on June 20, 1969. The young Five Percenters were fast presenting a growing problem among the City's black youth. They defied authority and taught other black youth that they didn't need a whiteman's education or job. The Police Department and the Board of Education had difficulties in finding people who were both street-wise and sufficiently schooled in Black nationalist philosophy to establish relationships with these youth to redirect their activities and thinking. They were aware of the controversial racial questions involved. The controversial means of dealing with rebellious black youth with pacification programs of recreation, job recruitment, remedial education, and traditional social work wasn't enough. Within the white power structure Allah was being viewed as a dangerous man. In 1967, Allah began to teach the brothers that they were Gods also, as he had realized in himself. He had them change their names from Muslim names to come in the name of Allah as their family name and take a name from their mathematics or alphabets to go with it. Thus, for example, a Five Percenter with a name like I Islam was renamed Um Allah, Hakiem was renamed Born Allah, Dihoo was renamed Knowledge Allah, and so on. Allah was very particular at distinguishing his nation from the Muslims. He taught the sisters that the earth is the Blackwoman's twin in nature. Thus Five Percenter women are called Earths. The Black woman is symbolic to the earth in many ways the earth is the only planet in our solar system that is capable of reproducing life the moon, the earth's counterpart, reflects the light of the sun in much the same way that the woman reflects the teachings of her man. Five Percenter women wear long dresses so that they are clothed with three fourths of their body covered symbolic of the earth being three fourths covered with water. Earths were encouraged to study nutrition so that they could provide a healthy environment for their family. He taught all of his Nation, Gods and Earths that the way for the black nation to regain its position of greatness in the world again was to take care of and teach the babies. In 1968, Allah started giving indications to his Five Percenters that he would be departing. He would tell them things like, "After this year there won't be any Five Percenters anymore. You will be the Nation of Gods and Earths, not the Nation of Islam... If I die I don't want you standing over me crying because if I could I'd reach up and slap you." Or he would say to a friend while gesturing to one of his Five Percenters, "If I die tomorrow and he keeps teaching, how can I be dead?" In 1969, Allah began to prepare his Five Percenters for life on their own without him. He spoke with all of them in the Street Academy and one by one told them what their qualities were and left each of them responsible for a function for the Nation. He told them that he had to leave them because "the only way to attract the killer is to give blood" and that if they ever needed him all they had to do was come together. On the night of June 12, 1969, Allah was at his Street Academy speaking with his Five Percenters. He spoke with them well into the night about male-female relationships. Those who were present still remember to this day the euphoric feeling that he left them with. A feeling so good that they didn't notice that the yellow cab drive whose taxi that Allah got into wasn't the cab of A-Allah that he usually left with. Shortly after Allah had left, word came back that he had been brutally gunned down in the Elevator of Martin Luther King Towers on 112 Street in East Harlem. He was hit with seven or eight powerful blasts fired by his assailants. The Five Percenters rushed down to where their "father" was stricken. Many of them stood around crying. At least one of them had remembered what Allah had told them and didn't shed a tear. On Saturday, June 14th, Mayor Lindsay and his aide Barry Gotherer met with the Gods at their Street Academy. He told them of the sorrow that he felt also at the death of Allah. One by one the Gods spoke about the reasons that they loved Allah and pledged to continue his work. One God said that "the only way we can show we loved Allah is to build to become our own carpenters, doctors lawyers, painters and electricians." The funeral was held on Monday afternoon at Unity Funeral Chapel on 8th Avenue and 126 Street. It was a massive event as Harlem bid farewell to the man they affectionately called "Puddin". Four hundred people packed the chapel. Gods and Earths repeated the sentence "Allah cannot die! Allah is God, and God lives forever!" - as they passed the walnut casket bearing the earthly remains of the man who had reached out to them and taught them. The funeral procession through Harlem to Ferncliff Cemetery, in Hansdale, New York, where he was cremated, included seven bus loads of black youth. Who killed Allah? At that time Seventh Avenue was bustling with all types of shady activities from varied sorts. There was gamblers, dope peddlers, con-men, pimps, prostitutes, Muslims, powerful black church ministers, political activists, all coexisting amongst each other. The operators in Allah's assassination could have been any number of the street people found along Seventh Avenue. However, like Jesus, he could even have been betrayed from amongst one of his own; those who are closest to you can hurt you the most. Allah always said that the only one that can ever hurt me is a Five Percenter. The Daily News had ran a story that quoted an unidentified police spokesman as alleging that the Black Muslims were behind the death of Allah because they wanted to do away with so-called "splinter groups." Louis Farrakhan, who was minister of Temple No. 7 in Harlem, emphatically denied this account pointing out that "the police and the white power structure are tired of the Muslims and the Black militants, and would like to rid themselves of both by instigating, provoking and inciting black people to fight and kill each other." The one who killed Allah is the one who feared his power the most. The one who would stand to gain the most by black youth not being awakened to the knowledge of themselves. The one who enters our communities with the expressed purpose of concern for those in need and offering programs but with hidden motives of identifying, monitoring, and sabotaging. And now I ask you, Who killed Allah? Many people from outside the Nation thought that Allah's longtime friend, Justice, would fill the rule that Allah had left. Those within the Nation felt that Knowledge Allah had been groomed by Allah well enough to do the job. However, Allah had told his Five Percenters before he left them that his death would born the Nation of Gods and Earths. That they did not need a leader because they were all leaders of themselves and their family, and when black people have leaders the devil can easily execute them to derail the movement. After the death of Allah the Gods were, as Allah had predicted, dead for a year. They were devastated by his loss. For a year there was increased drinking and drug use. However, at the end of 1970 there was two events that indicated to the Gods that they were on their way to recovery. The first was a party that the Gods from the Bronx and Queens who attended Harlem Prep School together, gave in Hollis, Queens in December 1970. The second occurred that same New Year's Eve when the Gods from all four boroughs brought in the new year together at the Street Academy. As Allah had told them, if they ever needed him all they had to do was come together. In 1971, the Gods and Earths came alive as a Nation. They selected representatives to attend International events at the United Nations; they started teaching black youth in other states; they started math, science, sewing, and first aid classes in may parts of the city; Gods began teaching at Harlem Prep and representing the school at science seminars; they instituted the Nation's annual "Show and Prove", which is an educational and scientific display of their progress in continuing Allah's work [held each year in the month of June, to commemorate the date that he was killed]; they instituted an economic program called "Build the Builders." There were several Gods who were responsible for teaching in the Bronx. Among them was Born Allah, a very powerful and articulate God who was in the Nation since the early days. [Years before this, in 1968, while Allah was attending a Christmas party at City Hall he had a discussion with Burt Roberts who was then, District Attorney in the Bronx. Roberts told Allah, although supposedly joking at the time, that "I have no problem with your being Allah. You can be Allah all you want in Manhattan, in Queens, in Kings County but you come up to the Bronx county and tell people you're Allah and I'll have your black ass in jail."] Born Allah taught young Gods in the Bronx that they were responsible for defending and maintaining their own neighborhoods. They did not view the police as being protectors of their neighborhoods but rather as their oppressors. An incident occurred in Sept. of 1973 in which a man was killed on the street by a large group of people from the community for firing a gun savagely on the street. Born Allah was singled out and railroaded for his crime because the white authorities identified him as the "ring leader" of the Gods. He was given a twenty-five year to life sentence and to this day sits in a jail cell, not for the crime of which he is accused, but for the crime of teaching black youth to be sovereign over themselves and community. This is analogous to the case of Nelson Mandela in South Africa who also taught his people that they should not denounce violence as long as the white authorities continued to perpetrate violence against them. Both of them have sat in jail for the better part of the last twenty-five years for their views. Another event that further illustrates that the forces that killed Allah were alive and active in the Bronx took place in 1976. A very sincere God by the name of Kyleek had acquired use of the local manpower office for use of the Gods and Earths in the community to hold classes in martial arts, sewing, etc.... He had the keys to the building and was responsible for opening it up everyday which he did faithfully. One day he didn't show up to open the building and he hasn't been heard from since. The Nation began to grow in epic numbers among black youth. Gods and Earths were teaching and multiplying in all black neighborhoods within the City and in many neighboring states. Now it was more than just youth who were predominantly from the same socio-economic background; low income, broken families, with histories of run-ins with the authorities, but also included bright, middle class youth from working family backgrounds. So, the Nation reached across all class divisions. And most importantly, unlike other organizations that falter under when their leader is taken from them, the Nation of Gods and Earths grew prolifically after Allah was taken from them



Minister Louis Farrakhan of the Nation of Islam is a figure as current as

today's headlines, but the movement of which he is  a nominal spokesman has a

continuous history of over sixty years in this country.  The Nation of Islam

(NOI), as it is officially known, came to the attention of the general public

in the 1960s as the "Black Muslims." (1)  It is well-known for its doctrine

that the White Man is a devil.  but what is probably less well known is another

part of its teaching - that the Black man is god.<>

Outsiders have done little in-depth research to trace the NOI's doctrinal

predecessors.  The NOI itself has denied its connections with previous

movements, specifically the Moorish Science Temple of Noble Drew Ali.  Ali,

who was born as Timothy Drew in North Carolina in 1886, taught, among other

things, that Blacks are descended from the ancient Canaanites.  Legend has it

that he was the reincarnation of Muhammad, the Prophet of orthodox Islam.

Eventually relocating to Chicago, Ali built an organization that numbered

perhaps 30,000 adherents at its peak. (2)<>

On March 15, 1929, Ali was arrested after factional violence resulted in the

death of a rival, Sheik Claude Greene.  Arrested and held in the county jail,

Ali was eventually released on bail, but died July 20, 1929, under mysterious

circumstances. (3)

Master Fard Muhammad

The story of the NOI itself starts with a man variously known as Wali Farrad,

W.D. Fard, Wallace Fard Muhammad, and Farrad Muhammad, but who is best known

as Msater Fard Muhammad. (4)  According to his sucessor, Elijah Muhammad,

 He came alone.  He began teaching us the knowledge of ourselves, of

 God and the devil, of the measurements of the earth, of other planets,

 and the civilizations of some of the planets other than the earth.

    He measured and weighed the earth and the water; [he gave] the

 history of the moon; the history of the two nations that dominated the

 earth.  He gave the exact birth of the white race; the name of their

 God who made them and how; and the end of their time, the judgement,

 how it will begin and end. (5)

According to the same source, Fard had said, "My name is Mahdi; I am God." 

And according to another source, Fard, when asked who he was by the Detroit

police, responded: "I am the Supreme Ruler of the Universe." (6)

Master Fard Muhammad is officially noted by the NOI as having arrived in

Detroit on July 4, 1930, and departed on June 30, 1934.  (There is an older

tradition of an earlier arrival twenty years previous as well as attendance

at the University of Southern California.) (7)  In the interim, Fard

established temples in several cities and created a hierarchical organization

composed of a men's military training unit called the Fruit of Islam (FOI), a

ministers' corps, and a women's auxiliary called the Muslim Girls Training and

General Civilization Class (MGT-GCC). (8)  This infrastructure was built upon

Fard's ideological foundation known as the "Secret Ritual," which, arranged in

a question-and-answer format, became better known as the "Lost-Found Muslim

Lessons" or simply as "the lessons."

Within these lessons were the basic elements of an ancient mystery school.  It

involved secrecy from outsiders; an esoteric ritual containing keys for

recognition between fellow members; a cohesive world view; and a tradition that

could be explained only to initiates.  Central to these teachings were the

knowledge of self and the Black man's godhood. (9)  According to these

teachings, the Black man was by nature divine, and in fact was the original

man, ancestor of the human race (antedating Louis and Mary Leakey's discoveries

of early human remains in Africa by nearly thirty years.)

White people, on the other hand, were produced out of Black people by a

scientist named Yacub approximately six thousand years ago. (10)  Discovering

a recessive gene in the Black man, Yacub used a system of eugenics on a

group of sixty thousand people on an island and, after six hundred years, was

able to create a biological mutation: the White man.  Of course Yacub did not

live to see his creation, but he left behind an infrastructure to propogate

his system, as well as the ideological basis for White supremacy.  Bleached

of the essence of humanity, Whites were "without soul."  Nonetheless the race

was destined to rule for an allotted period extending to 1914 A.D, though, as

Fard's messenger Elijah Muhammad put it, "a few years of grace have been given

to complete the resurrection of the Black man, and especially the so-called

Negroes whom Allah has chosen for this change (of a new nation and world).

They (so-called Negroes) have been made so completely mentally dead ... that

extra time is allowed." (11)  It was also taught that the supreme god amongst

this mighty nation of Black gods commanded the name of Allah. (12)  This title

was claimed by Master Fard Muhammad himself.

Fard's deification of man can hardly be considered an aberration in light of

historical precedents.  The ancient pharaohs of Egypt, the Aztec emperors, and

the Peruvian Incas who traced their ancestry to the Sun God are well-known

examples.  More recently, there are claims of divinity for emperors Hirohito

and Haile Selassie, the Dalai Lama, and Kushok Bakula. (13)  And even these

should hardly turn any heads in the light of the tradition of Jesus of Nazareth

as God incarnate.  The Hindu avatar tradition would also be right at home in

such company.

The teaching of the divinity of the Black man specifically (a doctrine known as

"incarnation") is said to go back to ancient Egyptian mystery schools; in fact

Khem (and its variants Cham, Ham), an ancient name of Egypt, means "land of the

Blacks."  Nor did the doctrine of incarnation start with Master Fard Muhammad

and the NOI; according to Fard's messenger and succesor, Elijah Muhammad, the

knowledge of man as god had been long known but "was kept a secret from the

public." (14)

"The Lost-Found People of Islam"

Prior to Fard's appearance in 1930, Noble Drew Ali's Moorish Science Temples

of America were in decline.  After the loss of its founder in 1929, the movement

had fallen into three separate schisms.  Sheik John Givens El claimed that

Noble Drew Ali had become reincarnated into him, Givens El, on August 7, 1929.

in Chicago.  This was publicly announced in Chicago's Pythian Hall on August

19 of that year. (15)

But, according to scholar Ravanna Bey, W.D. Fard, known at the time as Abdul

Wali Farrad Muhammad, and two other Moorish Scientists, Mealy El and Charles

Kirkman Bey, contested the authority of Givens El.  The latter two went on to

establish their own independent Moorish Science Temples, while Fard converted

a Detroit Moorish Science Temple and renamed it the Temple of the Lost-Found

People of Islam (a story that has been hotly contested by NOI leadership). (16)

A wartime memo claimed W.D. Fard was one Sheik Davis El from Kansas. (17)

According to yet another source, Fard had declared himself the reincarnation

of Noble Drew Ali. (18)  With so many stories in circulation, confusion has

been the norm.

On November 21, 1932, Robert Karriem, a member of Fard's Detroit temple, was

arrested for the murder of J.J. Smith, another temple member.  The police

arrested thirty seven members in what they characterized as a case of "human

sacrifice" with religious overtones.  They labeled the incident as the "Voodoo

Murder," and the media followed suit. (19)  The organization was referred to as

the "Voodoo Cult," and Fard as "Chief of the Voodoos" by the detractors.

Karriem, also known as Robert Harris, was found insane and ordered to be

confined to the State Insane Asylum at Ionia, Michigan, on December 6, 1932.

Meanwhile Detroit was being turned upside down in pursuit of Fard, who was

proving to be elusive.  After seven months, the police finally arrested him at

Detroit's Hotel Fraymore on May 25, 1933.  Held overnight for "investigation,"

he was photographed and fingerprinted.  On the following day he was ordered out

of the city.  Traveling to Chicago, he was again arrested.  According to Elijah

Muhammad, Fard "came to Chicago in the same year [1933] and was arrested almost

immediately on his arrival and placed behind prison bars." (20)  According to

FBI sources, Fard was thought to have been arrested in Chicago on September 26,

1933, without disposition, photo, or fingerprints taken, for "disorderly

conduct," a police euphemism for the harassment of undesirables.  This is the

last official record of Fard.  Unsubstantiated rumors lay his disappearance at

the door of the Chicago police department; but according to NOI tradition, Fard

continued to visit Detroit surreptitiously into 1934.

Fard The Man

Who was Fard?  Official NOI teachings state that he was born in Mecca, Arabia,

February 26, 1877.  The offspring of a Black father and a White mother, he was

"able to go among both black and white without being discovered or recognized."

(21)  His mission was to teach freedom, justice, and equality to the members of

the "lost tribe of Shabazz in the wilderness of North America."  He had

recieved the finest education in preparation for his mission; "he could speak

16 languages and write 10 of them.  He could recite the histories of the world

as far back as 150,000 years and knew the beginning and end of all things."(22)

However, different sources contribute their conflicting versions of the man.

Fard was also described as a "Palestinian Arab who had participated in various

racial agitations in India, South Africa, and London before moving on to

Detroit."  He was also thought to be the son of an African Jamaican mother and

a Syrian Muslim father. (23)  Another report claimed that he was born of a

Maori mother and a British sailor father in New Zealand. (24)  Still another

states that he was a Turkish-born agent for Hitler. (25)  A recent account

somewhat incoherently describes Fard as a "Jewish Nazi Communist," and says he

was an agent of the CIA in 1930 (seventeen years before that agency came into

existence). (26)  One more recent writer has constructed the tenuous

hypothesis that Fard came to Sufi mysticism by way of Theosophy. (27)  There is

even an account (complete with transcript) of a supposed encounter between

Fard and Albert Einstien at a Detroit radio station in 1932.

While the oral histories of Moorish Science adherents claim Fard as one of

their own gone astrary, NOI initiates say that Fard, arriving in the

"wilderness of North America" as early as 1910, taught Noble Drew Ali, Father

Divine, Daddy Grace and Sufi Abdul-Hamid (28) the concept of Black godhood,

though all of these later went on their own way.  There is also a tradition

that in Egypt Fard taught Duse Muhammad Ali, the mentor of Marcus Garvey

(founder of the Universal Negro Improvement Association), as well as Garvey

himself, whom he met in London.

Fard was described as having an "oriental cast of countenance," (29) a

description which a 1933 police photo seems to bear out.  Police sources

describe him as five feet six inches in height and weighing 133 pounds.  His

eye color is given as "maroon," his hair as black, and his complexion is

described as "dark" or "swarthy."  One entry described him as looking like a

"dark complected Mexican."  Only two photographs remain from Fard's three and

a half years in Detroit: the police photo and a "glamourized" (i.e. touched-up)

portrait of a sort popular in the late 1920s, taken at a forty-five-degree

angle by a professional photographer.  The latter became the official portrait

of Fard, and was later reproduced in a painted portrait at the Muhammad family

mansion in Chicago.

The Departure of Fard

Other accounts circulated after Fard's disappearance.  According to Elijah

Muhammad, Fard was "ordered out of the country" and caught a flight to Mecca.

(30)  It was also reported that he sailed to Austrailia and New Zealand, and

that he was last seen "aboard a ship bound for Europe." (31)  A suspect source

claimed that Fard was interviewed in Germany but denied ever being in the

United States. (32)  A recent report in an orthodox Muslim newspaper claimed

that Fard is alive and living in California and is now himself an orthodox

Muslim. (33)

In addition, there were rumors to the effect that Fard "met with foul play at

the hands of either the Detroit police or some of his dissident followers," or

that he was the victim of "human sacrifice" himself, thereby accounting for

both his disappearance and his title of "Saviour." (34)  Another

unsubstantiated story said that, afflicted with an incurable illness, he died

and was buried under another name, and "no man knows of his grave to this day."

Rumors aside, there has been no reliable report of his death.  The FBI, which

initiated an investigation of Fard in 1942 that was to last more than thirty

years, could not substantiate or verify his name at birth, birth date, place

of birth, port of entry, exit, or present whereabouts, despite exhaustive

inquiries.  There are even indications that bodies were exhumed in the search

for Fard.

The Messenger of Allah

It was Elijah Muhammad who was almost single-handedly responsible for the

deification of Fard as "Allah." (35)  Elijah Muhammad was born Paul Robert

Poole in 1897 on a tenant farm in Sandersville, Georgia, the seventh of

twelve children; he was given the name Elijah by his grandfather.  Later on,

Fard would give him the name Muhammad. (36)  Elijah married the former Clara

Evans and migrated to Detroit in 1923.  Working at a variety of jobs until the

Depression hit in 1929, he went on relief until 1931.  It was in that year that

he first met Fard, but says that "it was not until 1933 that he [Fard] began

revealing his true self to us." (37)

After Fard's disappearance, the struggle for succesion commenced.  Elijah's own

brother fell in the bloody internecine warfare that developed. (38)  Rivals in

the Detroit temple made necessary Elijah's hegira to Chicago, which was

destined to become the headquarters and power base; but from 1935 to 1942, he

was on the run.  In 1942 he was arrested in Washington, D.C., by the FBI on

charges of sedition.  At roughly the same time, more than eighty members of the

Chicago temple were taken in under the same charge by FBI agents working with

local police.  One of the arrested temple members said the officers "tore the

place apart trying to find weapons hidden, since they believed we were

connected with the Japanese." (39)

The sedition charge was based on the temple's anti-draft stance and was applied

for blatantly political reasons.  The arrest of Elijah and his followers, and

their subsequent incarceration until the end of the war, greatly enhanced their

status as martyrs for the cause.

Like other leaders jailed for their activities, Elijah brought forth innovations

for his movement when he was released.  Prior to his imprisonment, the movement

was based entirely on its theological teachings and traditions.  In 1946 it

numbered in the hundreds, just possibly the thousands.  But that was to change.

Upon his release, Elijah stated, "We have to show the people something - we

cannot progress by talk."  And so, as his son Wallace later explained, Elijah

"changed from preaching his mysterious doctrine to doing something practical.

He said, 'We have to have businesses.'  So he began to promote the opening of

businesses.  He said, 'You have to produce jobs for yourself'." (40)

Quietly growing through the 1940s and '50s, the NOI came to enjoy phenomenal

growth in the 1960s owing to media exposure and the charismatic gifts of its

national spokesman, Malcolm X.  As Elijah's chief minister, Malcolm was known

in Black inner cities for his dynamic presence and speaking ability.  He gained

national exposure through Mike Wallace's 1959 television documentary, "The

Hate that Hate Produced."  The program shocked Middle America, while at the

same time grim-faced FOI members met with admiration from inner-city audiences.

Elijah Muhammad, Malcolm X, and the NOI had arrived on prime time.  Recruitment


Born Malcolm Little in Omaha, Nebraska, in 1925, Malcolm X had been introduced

to Elijah Muhammad through family members while in prison in Massachusetts.  In

the early 1950s he converted and took his "X." (41)  Upon his release he joined

the organization in Detroit and subsequently rose to a position of leadership,

eventually moving to New York City, where he was assigned Temple #7.  But in

1965 factional rivalry and FBI activities reaped their harvest: Malcolm X was


After his death Malcolm X became the martyr of the Black nationalist movement.

But for the next ten years, the various factions were just treading water, and

no one made any waves until the death of Elijah Muhammad in 1975.

Allah Comes To Harlem

In the meantime, however, the doctrine of Black incarnation had not died, and

while W.D. Fard was still invoked in prayer in the temples of the NOI, another

cycle in the series of resurrections and reincarnations came about.  The former

FOI Clarence 13X  became the founder of the "Five Percenters" in New York City

around 1964.

Born Clarence Edward Smith in Danville, Virginia, in 1928, while still in his

teens he came with his family to New York City.  Married and the father of

several children, he served with the U.S. Army during the Korean Conflict.

Honorably discharged in 1954, he remained a reservist until 1960, at which time

he joined the NOI.  He remained in the NOI until he was expelled by Malcolm X

under orders from the Chicago headquarters in 1963.

The leading rumor of the cause of Clarence's expulsion was his admitted love

for playing craps.  Dice playing, it was claimed, was a way of demonstrating

the probabilities inherent in the nature of the universe.  By contrast to

Einstien's famous dictum, "God doesn't play dice," the former Clarence 13X

Smith, who took on the attribute (or name) Allah, did claim, "I am going to

shoot dice until I die." (42)  And he did.

"Allah," as he became known, took Fard's "Lost-Found Muslim Lessons" out of the

temple and put them into the hands of the youth in the streets.  Fard's

initiation ritual related a mathematical formula for the human society, which

was broken down into percentages.  The Five Percent were those who taught

righteousness, freedom, justice, and equality to all the human family.  They

taught that the god of righteousness was not a spirit or a spook, but the Black

man of Asia.  (Asia was viewed as the primary continent, all the others as

subcontinents; continental drift was a facet of this teaching.)

The Eighty-Five Percent, the masses, believed in a "Mystery God" and worshipped

"that which did not exist."  they believed in a spirit deity rather than a

material man as god.  They functioned on a "mentally dead" (i.e. unconscious)

level and were easy to lead in the wrong direction but hard to lead in the


The Ten Percent were the bloodsuckers of the poor who taught the Eighty-Five

Percent that a Mystery God existed.  They kept the masses asleep with myths

and lies, catering to their superstitious nature and living in luxury from the

earnings of the poor.

The Five Percent were destined to be poor righteous teachers and to struggle

successfully against the Ten Percent.  Their job was to lead the Eighty-Five

Percent to freedom, justice, and equality.  At first a loose confederation of

the lumpen proletariat, Allah's followers numbered in the hundreds, but that

soon changed.

The Rise of the Five Percent

Allah attracted the attention of both the police and the politicians - a lethal

combination.  Mayor Lindsay's administration in New York City saw in him a

means of keeping the Harlem streets cool through the long, hot summers of the

riot-strewn Sixties.  So Allah was put on the city payroll.  Meanwhile the

New York City Police Department's Bureau of Special Services (BOSS), who kept

their eyes on radicals and dissidents, put him at the top of their list of

"Black Militants." (43)

For his part Allah wanted something for his youngsters.  In the short time he

was associated with the mayor's office, he was able to open an academy with

city funds.  He expanded his recruitment of youth with picnic outings and

airplane rides.  The youth in turn sensed his love for them, and it is no

wonder that in the contempary Five Percent he is referred to as "The Father."

Allah was assassinated Friday the 13th of June, 1969 by "three male negroes."

His Death was reported on the front of the New York Times. (44)  His murder

remains unsolved.  It has been rumored within the FOI circles that his death

was the result of his "taking the lessons out of the temple."  There is

evidence, however, that BOSS instigated the assassination to create a war

between the NOI and the Five Percent. (45)  With Allah's martyrdom, legends

again began to proliferate, and "The Father, Allah" joined the pantheon of the

Black gods of the inner city along with Nobel Drew Ali and W.D. Fard.

But Allah's story doesn't end there.  Like Jesus, he taught "You are gods,"

(John 10:34), testifying to the inherent divinity of man; nonetheless his

followers elevated him above themselves.  His biographies became tinged with

myth, and a supernatural element was added to his teaching; the "Father" has

been magnified in his absence, and he has become a cult personality.  His

photos adorn walls where previous generations had kept a picture of a blond-

haired, blue eyed Jesus.

A New Era

With the death of Elijah Muhammad in 1975, a new power struggle ensued in the

house that Fard built.  Wallace Delaney Muhammad, son of Elijah, was born in

Detroit in 1933.  He recieved his elementary and high-school education at the

NOI's University of Islam in Chicago, and spent four more years studying Islam

and Arabic at orthodox Muslim schools.  He was long regarded as the logical

successor to his father.  Born and groomed for the part, he was introduced by

Malcolm X as "the seventh son of our dear beloved leader and Teacher who is

following in the footsteps of his father." (46)

But not everything was to run so smoothly or so simply.  Wallace D. Muhammad

had in fact been expelled by his father for his refusal to recognize the

divinity of Master Fard Muhammad.  In addition, Minister Louis Farrakhan, the

national spokesman for the organization, was waiting in the wings.  Farrakhan,

while probably more popular among hard-core militants, failed to muster the

votes required from the family dominated inner circle in Chicago.  So, despite

Wallace's departures from NOI orthodoxy, nepotism prevailed.

Wallace was careful, however.  He did not challenge the sanctity of his

namesake's coattails, to which he owed his own legitimacy.  A year after his

accension to power, Wallace claimed ni speeches to believers that he was in

communication with the founder, saying, "Master Fard Muhammad is not dead,

brothers and sisters, he is physically alive and I talk with him whenever I get

ready.  I don't talk to him in any spooky way, I go to the telephone and dial

his number." (47)

Within a few years, though, Wallace was moving in the direction of orthodox

Islam.  Taking the organization through a number of name changes, he changed

his own name to Warith (meaning "heir" in Arabic).  Ultimately he sold off the

businesses that had been accumulated over the previous thirty years and joined

the fold of orthodox Islam.

The Farrakhan Facet

For a while after Elijah Muhammad's death, Louis Farrakhan toed the line. 

Approximately three years later, however, the old-line NOI traditionalists

regrouped.  With a certain amount of encouragement from them, Farrakhan left

the employ of Warith.

Known in an earlier period as Minister Louis X of Boston's Temple No. 11,

Farrakhan had joined the NOI in the mid-1950s  a former calypso singer, he

became a speaker of some note.  He recieved the name Farrakhan from Elijah

Muhammad, but neither he nor anyone else seems to know just what it means.

Groomed in the shadow of Malcolm X, and sometimes hosting him in his visits to

Boston, Farrakhan was later to fiercely denounce him in the pages of Muhammad

Speaks, the paper that, ironically, Malcolm himself had started in New York in



 Only those who wish to be led to hell, or to their doom, will follow

 Malcolm.  The die is set and Malcolm shall not escape, especially after

 such foolish talk about his benefactor in trying to rob him of the

 divine glory which Allah has bestowed upon him.  Such a man as Malcolm

 is worthy of death. (48)

Farrakhan later admitted his deviation from the NOI path in following Wallace.

Others had refused to recognize the legitimacy of Wallace's succesion and had

left earlier.  In time the NOI traditionalists regrouped around Farrakhan. 

One, the former Bernard Cushmeer (now Jabril Muhammad), joined up claimed that

Elijah was not really dead.  He wrote a book to prove it.  Farrakhan, after

some hesitation, concurred; in September 1985 he claimed to have had a vision

in which he was taken up to the Mothership and saw Elijah. (49)

But there was one certainty in the air: that a era had passed and a new cycle

had been initiated in the history of the unique form of Islam practiced in the

wilderness of North America, complete with its own prophets, gods, saviors, and


Another Cycle

After centuries of slavery, lynchings, discriminations, miseducation, police

brutality, and poverty, it was not difficult for semiliterate Black migrants

in the Depression era to believe that the White man was a devil.  What was

difficult, after generations of being taught in schools, textbooks, and the

media that Black people were inferior and had no history of achievement before

enslavement, was for them to see the divine nature in themselves.  It was not

for Black people to rehabilitate their view of Whites, but to raise their own

self-esteem.  The doctrine of Black godhood responds to this need, and the

Black gods of the inner city are symptomatic ot this effort.

In recent years the Five Percent has grown in numbers, despite the departure of

Allah.  The doctrine of Black godhood is enjoying a renewal among inner-city

youth of the 1990s.  They are attracted by its esoteric tradition, its Black

identity, and the symbolism of the Five Percent's Universal Flag.  Its

influence in the rap music field is evidenced by the artists who identify

themselves with it in their lyrics: Big Daddy Kane (King Asiatic God Allah),

Poor Righteous Teachers, King Sun, Rakim, Brand Nubian, Movement Ex, and Lakim

Shabazz (who has done a video in Egypt with pyramids in the background). (50)

What can you possibly think when you watch MTV and hear an attractive young

Black woman, "cultured-down" (dressed in long skirts with here hair covered),

announce: "Peace, this is the goddess Isis"?  There's definitely a connection

among godhood, Blackness, and Egypt.

However you may view the above, the next time you hear a twenty-year-old

youngster like Lakim Shabazz on MTV rapping about "knowledge, wisdom, and

understanding," or saying "The original man is the Asiatic Black man," or "

I'm God, my number is seven," you will recognize that he is reciting portions

of a once-secret ritual that is known to be more that sixty years old and that

traces itself back to ancient Egypt.  With that knowledge, you can be assured

that the Black gods and goddesses of the inner cities are alive and well.

[ Prince-A-Cuba, born in Havana in 1962, can be reached as W. Don Fajardo

c/o T.U.T., P.O. Box 3243, East Orange, NJ 07017.  His forthcoming book is

entitled Our Mecca is Harlem: Clarence 13X (Allah) and the Five Percent. ]



1.  The term was coined in 1956 by C. Eric Lincoln.  Cf.  his Black Muslims in

America (Boston: Beacon Press, 1961, 1973),p. xii.

2.  Lincoln, pp. 53, 57.

3.  E.U. Essien-Udom, Black Nationalism: A Search for Idendity (Chicago:

University of Chicago Press, 1962, 1971), p. 35.

4.  E.D. Beynon, "The Voodoo Cult among Negro Migrants in Detroit," in American

Journal of Sociology 43 (May 1938), Republished as Master Fard Muhammad:

Detroit History, Prince-A-Cuba. ed. (Newport News, Va.: UB & USCS, 1990).

Page references are to the latter.

5.  Elijah Muhammad, Message to the Blackman in America (Newport News,: UB &

USCS, 1965), pp. 16-17.

6.  Beynon, p. 6.

7.  Ibid., p.5; cf. Pittsburgh Courier, July 20, 1957; and interview with

Elijah Muhammad by R.Simmons of the California Eagle, July 28, 1963.

8.  Temples were founded in Detroit, Chicago, Milwaukee, Cleveland, and

Washington, D.C.  The Detroit temple had a membership of 8000, according to

NOI officials, and 5000, according to the Detroit police. Cf. Beymon, p. 7.

9.   The expressions "knowledge of self" and "know thyself" are found throughout

the NOI teachings.  Cf. George G.M. James, Stolen Lagacy (Newport News, Va.:

UB &USCS, 1954), pp. 3, 88, 92 and Anonymous, Egyptian Mysteries: An Account

of an Initiation (York Beach, Me.: Samueal Weiser, 1991), p. 43.

10.  Muhammad, Message, pp. 110-21.

11.  Elijah Muhammad, Our Savior Has Arrived (Newport News, Va.: UB & USCS,

1974), p. 13.

12.  Lincoln, p. 75.

13. India's ambassador to Mongolia, considered a "living Buddha"; New York

Times, July 22, 1991, p. A-6

14.  Muhammad, Message, p. 9, and Saviour, p. 61.

15.  Prof. Ravanna Bey, third-generation Moorish Scientist and Adept, in

personal communication with the author.

16.  Essien-Udom, pp. 35-36.

17.  Federal Bureau of Investigation, Detroit Field Office Report, File #100-

26356 (Nov.12, 1942).

18.  Arna Bontemps and Jack Conroy, Anyplace but Here (New York; Hill & Wang,

1966); cited in Essien-Udom, pp. 35-45.

19.  Detroit Times, Nov. 22, 1932.

20.  Muhammad, Message, pp. 24-25.

21.  Ibid., p. 20.

22.  Pittsburgh Courier, July 20, 1957.

23.  Lincoln, p. 14.

24.  San Franscisco Herald-Examiner, July 23, 1963.

25.  The New Crusader (Chicago), Aug. 15, 1959.

26.  Sayyid Issa Al Haadi Al Mahdi, The Book of the Five Percenters

(Monticello, N.Y.: Tents of Kedar, 1991), p. 413.

27.  Hakim Shabazz, Essays of the Life and Teachings of Master W. Fard

Muhammad (Newport News, Va.: UB & USCS, 1990).

28.  Essien-Udom, p. 32: Lincoln, p. 182.  See also Sara Harris, Father Divine:

Holy Husband (New York, 1953).

29.  Essien-Udom, p.43.

30.  Muhammad, Saviour, p. 21; cf. Essien-Udom, pp. 45-46

31.  San Franscisco Herald-Examiner, Feb. 26, 1965, and July 28, 1963; Lincoln,

p. 17.

32.  IssaAl Mahdi, The Book of the Lamm (Brooklyn, N.Y.: Ansarullah

Publications, 1986).

33.  Interview with Dr. Alauddin Shabazz in New Trend, July 1991

34.  Lincoln, pp. 17, 199.

35.  Ibid.

36.  Essien Udom. p. 128.

37.  Muhammad, Saviour, p. 23.

38.  Muhammad, Message, p. 264.

39.  Essien-Udom, p. 67.

40.  Wallace D. Muhammad, As the Light Shineth fromt he East (Chicago: WDM

Publishing, 1980), p. 20.

41.  The practice of inserting the "X" (meaning "unknown") before the "slave

name" or surname  came into existence after the disappearance of Fard. 

Believers were told in the early period that they would get their "righteous

name" on his return.  The practice becambe established and its purpose


42.  Les Matthews, "Allah Lives," (New York) Amsterdam News, June 21, 1969,

pp. 1, 41.

43.  Barry Gottterher, The Mayor's Man (New York, 1975). p. 92.  This book

provides a good history of Allah's career and interactions with the Lindsay


44.  William F. Farrell, "Harlem Militants Offer Peace Vow," New York Times,

June 15, 1969.

45.  Frank Faso, "Kenyatta's Pal is Killed, Cops See Muslim war," New York

Daily News, June 14, 1969.

46.  Essien-Udom, p. 81.

47.  Wallace D. Muhammad. "Self-Government in the New World." Bilalian News,

Vol. 1., No. 19, March 19, 1976; cited in Milton C. Sernett, ed., Afro-

American Religious History: A Documentary Witness (Durham, N.C.: Duke

University Press, 1985), pp. 413-20

48.  Minister LouisX, "Boston Minister Tells of Malcolm - Muhammad's Biggest

Hypocrite," Muhammad Speaks, December 4, 1964, See also Clayborne Carson,

Malcolm X: the FBI File (New York; Carroll & Graf, 1991), p. 43; and Playthel

Benjamin, "Interview with Louis Farrakhan," Emerge magazine, February 1990.

49.  Jabril Muhammad, Is it Possible That the Honorable Elijah Muhammad is

Still Alive? (New York; Resurrecting Light Communications, 1983), p.v.

50.  Chalie Ahearn, "The Five Percent Solution," Spin, February 1991, pp.

55-57, 76; Harry Allen, "Righteous Indignation," The Source (March-April 1991),

pp. 49-55.

Selected Biography

Fauset, Arthur H. "Moorish Science Temple of America," in J. Milton Yinger,

 Religion, Society, and the Individual, New York: Macmillan, 1968,

 pp. 458-507.

Goldman, Peter, The Death and Life of Malcolm X, New York: Harper & Row, 1973.

Lomax, Louis, When the Word is Given: A Report on Elijah Muhammad, Malcolm X,

 and the Black Muslim World, Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1963.

Malcolm X and Alex Haley, The Autobiography of Malcolm X, New York: Grove

 Press, 1965.

Marsh, Charles E. From Black Muslims to Muslims: The Transition from Separatism

 to Islam, 1930-80, Metuchin, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1984.

Parenti, Michael. "The Black Muslims: From Revolution to Institution," in

 Social Research 31 (1964), pp. 975-94.

Watts, Jill. God, Harlem U.S.A.: The Father Divine Story, Berkeley: University

 of California Press, 1992.



Thirty-four years after the signing of the Emancipation Proclamation, the Honorable Elijah Muhammad was born on or about Oct. 7, 1897 in Sandersville, Georgia. The exact date of his birth remains unknown because record keeping in rural Georgia for the descendants of slaves was not kept current, according to historians and family members. Nevertheless, the Honorable Elijah Muhammad said his birth took place some time in the first or second week of October in 1897 and set forth Oct. 7th as the anniversary date of his birth.

Indeed, life in the rural South at the turn of the century was quite hard. Poverty and survival were at war with each other. Elijah Poole, the son of a minister, and whose parents, William (later named Wali) and Marie Poole, had 12 other children, had to quit school after barely finishing the third grade to work in the fields as a sharecropper so his family could eat.

Just before the roaring twenties came in, Elijah Poole married the former Clara Evans, also of Georgia. They had eight children, Emmanuel, Ethel, Lottie, Nathaniel, Herbert, Elijah, Jr., Wallace and Akbar.

In April 1923, Elijah Poole moved his young family from Macon, Georgia, where he worked for the Southern Railroad Company and the Cherokee Brick Company to Detroit, Mich. Black families, like the Pooles, were leaving the south, at that time, in search of better economic and social circumstances. Detroit was a bustling upwardly mobile city with its burgeoning auto industry.

The stock market crash in 1929 was the gateway to economic misery that sparked the fuel of the "Great Depression" of the 1930s. Moreover, America's racial situation continued its downward spiral. Lynchings, race riots and other forms of terrorism against Blacks continued unabated. But Detroit, with its huge population of 1.5 million people including 250,000 thousand Blacks, was beginning to see changes in its social scene.

On July 4, 1930, the long awaited "Saviour" of the Black man and woman, Master W. Fard Muhammad, appeared in this city. He announced and preached that God is One, and it is now time for Blacks to return to the religion of their ancestors, Islam. News spread all over the city of Detroit of the preachings of this great man from the East. Elijah Poole's wife first learned of the Temple of Islam and wanted to attend to see what the commotion was all about, but instead, her husband advised her that he would go and see for himself.
Master Fard Muhammad

Hence, in 1931, after hearing his first lecture at the Temple of Islam, Elijah Poole was overwhelmed by the message and immediately accepted it. Soon thereafter, Elijah Poole invited and convinced his entire family to accept the religion of Islam.
The Founder of the Nation of Islam gave him the name "Karriem" and made him a minister. Later he was promoted to the position of "Supreme Minister" and his name was changed to Muhammad. "The name 'Poole' was never my name," he would later write, "nor was it my father's name. It was the name the white slave-master of my grandfather after the so-called freedom of my fathers."

Mr. Muhammad quickly became an integral part of the Temple of Islam. For the next three and one-half years, Mr. Muhammad was personally taught by his Teacher non-stop. The Muslim community, in addition to establishing religious centers of worship, began to start businesses under the aegis of economic development that focuses on buying and selling between and among Black companies. Mr. Muhammad establishes a newspaper, "The Final Call to Islam," in 1934. This would be the first of many publications he would produce.

Hon. E. Muhammad with wife Sister Clara, departing from one of the Nation of Islam's planes.
Meanwhile, Mr. Muhammad helped establish schools for the proper education of his children and the community. Indeed, the Muslim parents felt that the educational system of the State of Michigan was wholely inadequate for their children, and they established their own schools. By 1934, the Michigan State Board of Education disagreed with the Muslim's right to pursue their own educational agenda, and the Muslim Teachers and Temple Secretary were jailed on the false charge of contributing to the delinquency of minors. Mr Muhammad said he committed himself to jail after learning what had happened.

Ultimately, the charges were later dropped, and the officials were freed and Mr. Muhammad received six months' probation to take the Muslim children out of the Islamic school and put them under white Christian teachers. "This I did not do," he said. He moved to the city of Chicago in September of that same year. His Teacher, Master W. Fard Muhammad, was also harassed by the police and was forced out of Detroit and moved to Chicago where he continued to face imprisonment and harassment by the police. On February 26, 1934, Master W. Fard Muhammad, departed the scene and left the Honorable Elijah Muhammad with the mission of resurrecting the Black man and woman.

By 1935, Mr. Muhammad faced many new challenges. His teacher had instructed him to go to Washington, D.C. to visit the Library of Congress in order to research 104 books on the religion of Islam, among other subjects. Also, after assuming the leadership of the Temple of Islam by the order of the Founder of the Nation of Islam, Mr. Muhammad faced a death plot at the hands of a few disgruntled members. Mr. Muhammad avoided their evil plan and went to Washington, D.C. to study and build a mosque there. He was known under many names, "Mr. Evans," his wife's maiden name, "Ghulam Bogans," "Muhammad Rassoull," "Elijah Karriem" and "Muhammad of 'U' Street."
Always taking time for the people he worked to redeem, the Most Hon. Elijah Muhammad greets an elderly sister during an event.

Consequently, Mr. Muhammad, while in Washington, D.C. Was arrested on May 8, 1942, for allegedly evading the draft. "When the call was made for all males between 18 and 44, I refused (NOT EVADED) on the grounds that, first, I was a Muslim and would not take part in war and especially not on the side with the infidels," he wrote in "Message To The Blackman." "Second, I was 45 years of age and was NOT, according to the law, required to register."
Many other male members of the Nation of Islam at that time were imprisoned for being conscientious objectors to World War II. After World War II ended, Mr. Muhammad won his release from prison and returned to Chicago. From Chicago, the central point of the Nation of Islam, Mr. Muhammad expanded his membership drive to new heights. Among the many new members enrolled in the ranks of Islam included Brother Malcolm X and his family.

During the 1950s, Mr. Muhammad promoted Min. Malcolm X to the post of National Spokesman, and began to syndicate his weekly newspaper column, "Mr. Muhammad Speaks," in Black newspapers across the country. Membership was increasing when, in 1955, Minister Louis Farrakhan, then Louis Walcott, an entertainer, enrolled in the Nation of Islam after hearing Mr. Muhammad deliver a speech in Chicago.

Persecution of the Muslims continued. Members and mosques continued to be attacked by whites in Monroe, La., Los Angeles, Calif., and Flint, Mich., among others. Publicity in the white owned and operated media began to circulate anti-Nation of Islam propaganda on a large scale. By the early 1960s, the Readers Digest magazine described Mr. Muhammad as the most powerful Black man in America. In Washington, D.C., Mr. Muhammad delivered his historic Uline Arena address and was afforded presidential treatment, receiving a personal police escort.

Subsequently, television commentator Mike Wallace, in conjunction with Louis Lomax, a Black journalist, aired the documentary, "The Hate That Hate Produced," on a local New York City station. The documentary misrepresents the message of the Nation of Islam, calling it a hate teaching. James Baldwin, a famous Black author, released the book, "The Fire Next Time," based largely upon his interview with Mr. Muhammad. At the same time, white political leaders such as Senator Al Gore Sr., began to denounce the Nation of Islam and hold hearings on alleged "un-American" activities. Minister Louis Farrakhan and the ministers of Islam defended the Honorable Elijah Muhammad and the Nation of Islam against these attacks in mass media in their public speeches, written editorials and other public relations thrusts.

Min. Louis Farrakhan, (L-R) adjusts microphone for Hon. Elijah Muhammad while Malcolm X and Min. Abdul Allah Muhammad look on. By 1964, Minister Malcolm X decided to separate from the Nation of Islam and formed his own religious and political organization. His very public defection from the Nation of Islam was based on his misinterpretation of the domestic life of the Hon. Elijah Muhammad Nevertheless, the atmosphere of rancor on both sides made ripe the environment for the secret police to meddle in the affairs of the Nation of Islam, according the late attorney, William Kuntsler. Mr. Kuntsler cited a declassified memo obtained through the Freedom of Information Act that revealed that the U.S. Government played a role in the 1965 assassination of Brother Malcolm X.

After the assassination of Brother Malcolm X, the New York mosque was fire bombed and the Muslim community was reeling. Mr. Muhammad then dispatched Minister Louis Farrakhan to New York City to take over the mosque there and begin the rebuilding effort. In 1965, the Honorable Elijah Muhammad promoted Minister Louis Farrakhan to the post of National Representative.
By the mid-sixties, Mr. Muhammad's ever-growing Islamic movement extended itself to more than 60 cities and settlements abroad in Ghana, Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central America among others places, according to the Muhammad Speaks newspaper, the religion's chief information apparatus.

A host of Islamic and African governments all over the world received him and donated generously to his mission. He made Hajj, (holy pilgrimage) to Mecca on more than one occasion and advocated worldwide brotherhood and sisterhood.

Every February 26, he brought together the faithful for Saviour's Day conventions in Chicago to remember his Teacher's birthday, to re-emphasize his message of moral and spiritual renewal and to announce his plans and agenda for the upcoming year. Economic development combined with moral and spiritual renewal began to show signs of progress with the establishment of farms, livestock and vegetable cultivation, rental housing, private home construction and acquisitions, other real estate purchases, food processing centers, restaurants, clothing factories, banking, business league formations, import and export businesses, aviation, health care, administrative offices, shipping on both land, sea and air, and men's and women's development and leadership training units. In 1972, the Honorable Elijah Muhammad opened a $2 million mosque and school in Chicago. During this important grand opening of Mosque No. 2, he praised and let it be known who his top helper was in his work.

He asked Min. Farrakhan to come before the religious community and then the following announcement while digressing from his previously stated remarks: "I want you to remember, today, I have one of my greatest preachers here-what are you hiding behind the sycamore tree for brother? (He chuckled)-c'mon around here where they can see you. (A rousing round of applause ensued).

"We have with us today," the Messenger continued, "our great national preacher. The preacher who don't mind going into Harlem, New York, one of the most worst towns in our nation or cities. It is our brother in Detroit and Chicago or New York. But, I want you to remember every week he's on the air helping me to reach those people that I can't get out of my house and go reach them like he.

"I want you to pay good attention to his preaching. His preaching is a bearing of witness to me and what God has given to me," he declared. "This is one of the strongest national preachers that I have in the bounds of North America. Everywhere you hear him, listen to him. Everywhere you see him, look at him. Everywhere he advises you to go, go. Everywhere he advises you to stay from, stay from. For we are thankful to Allah for this great helper of mine, Min. Farrakhan." (Another rousing round of applause ensued). "He's not a proud man," he said. "He's a very humble man. If he can carry you across the lake without dropping you in; he don't say when you get on the other side, 'You see what I have done?' He tells you, 'You see what Allah has done.' He doesn't take it upon himself. He's a mighty fine preacher. We hear him every week, and I say continue to hear our Min. Farrakhan. I thank you."

In watching Minister Louis Farrakhan and the followers of the Hon. Elijah Muhammad, the legacy of the Nation of Islam continues to make unlimited progress as witnessed in the miracle of the Two Million Man March among other truly amazing accomplishments.

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